In agriculture, organic farming is a form that makes use of green manure and crop rotation techniques. It is beneficial in maintaining soil productivity and pest controlling on farms. Use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticide are excluded in organic farming. Plant growth regulators like hormones, food additives, genetically modified organisms, etc are also excluded in this type or farming.
There are many benefits to organic farming for both the environment and the people who enjoy organic crops. When most people think of organic farming, they think of going back to traditional, old ways from thousands of years ago. While many of the farming methods used in the past are still quite useful, today’s organic farming combines these methods with modern science and scientific knowledge.
Methods and materials used in organic farming:
To maintain and build good fertility and soil structure:
• Use of compost (animal and plant residues)/ recycled animal manures and crop waste
• Correct soil cultivation at correct time
• Crop Rotation
• Legumes and green manures
For controlling pests, weeds and diseases:
• Corp choice and cautious planning
• Making use of resistant crops
• Encouraging pest eating predators
• Increasing genetic diversity
• Use of natural pesticides
• Crop rotation
Organic farming further includes:
• Cautious use of water resources
• Animal Husbandry
Advantages of organic farming:
• Reduces soil erosion
• Helpful in maintaining soil fertility
• It is fundamental in supporting the continued existence of wildlife in the lowlands
• Beneficial for dairy industry because cattle grazing on organic farms are less prone to infection or diseases and yield more milk
• Organic food products neither contains any harmful chemicals nor artificial preservatives or flavors
• Because of absence of pesticides and synthetic fertilizers, original nutrition of the agricultural products is maintained
• Reduces the risk of heart diseases
• Delight for taste buds
Agriculture is also important from the point of view of appraising the standard of a country’s development, based on the competence of its farmers. Poorly trained farmers cannot apply the advanced methods and new technologies. The prominence of science and technology in the development of agriculture is quite clear from the words of Deng Xiaoping.
The development of agriculture depends first on policy, and second on science. There is neither any limit to developments in science and technology, nor to the role that they can play in the field of agricultural growth. Though agriculture often plays a contributory role in the ‘Gross Domestic Product’ – GDP – of most countries, it nevertheless requires a substantial boost from both the local and the international community.
Agriculture is traditionally based on bulk manufacturing. Harvesting is done once a season, most of the times, and stocked and used later. In fact, some thinkers opine that people have begun to adopt ‘batch processing’ and ‘stocking’ in manufacturing, as a result of the practices from agricultural thinking. Before industrialization, people with the biggest stocks of food and other supplies were considered more stable, and they were able to face challenges of nature without having to starve.
So important is the role of agriculture that new concepts keep ‘cropping up’ to give the traditional activity a modern turn. One such new concept the world is raving about these days is – the importance of ‘organic farming’. There is evidence that, apart from their numerous other benefits, organic farms are more sustainable and environmentally sound, giving agriculture a new dimension.
The importance of agricultural practices was further established when ‘Organic food’ began as a small movement decades ago, with gardeners and farmers rejecting the use of conventional non-organic practices. With the growth of the Organic food market now outpacing much of the food industry, many big companies have ventured into it. With the emergence of multi-national companies, and with the creation of a legal certification framework such as the Soil Association, there is every doubt that the very definition of organic food will change, making it more of a commercial activity than ever before!