Science is a thought process combined with data. But, what is a natural science and what is a social science?
What is science?
Science, all science, the process of gaining knowledge through experimentation. Science is a methodology used to understand our world.
Natural sciences and social sciences are different only in what they study.
Natural sciences are sometimes called the hard sciences. These are subjects such as chemistry, physics, astronomy, biology, earth science, atmospheric science, materials science, and oceanography.
These fields all study the world and how it works.
Chemistry is the study of matter. When you study chemistry, you learn about what makes up matter, atoms. You learn about atomic structure and how molecules form and bond. You learn how matter reacts and changes state.
Earth science is the study of planet Earth. This field studies soil, geology, minerals, rocks, precious stones, plate tectonics and volcanoes, among other topics.
Physics is the study of what composes the universe and how the forces interact with matter and each other.
Astronomy is the study of the formation and development of the universe, planets, comets, stars, galaxies, celestial mechanics, red shift, blue shift, and everything else that happens in space.
Biology is the study of living things. How to bodies work? What’s different between a plant and a monkey?
Social sciences still use the same methodologies as natural sciences. Data is found and analyzed. The biggest difference for social sciences is, however, that social sciences deal with people.
Anthropology deals with how people interact with other people and how our cultures work.
Archaeology studies remnants of buried civilizations.
Economics is the study of money, the production of goods, and the distribution of those goods.
Human geography studies how humans are distributed on the earth and how we change and manage the earth.
Education can be a science too. People study which methods are best for learning.
History is the study of the past. Since history requires the written records and anything before then is prehistory, history is also the study of people-people of the past.
Linguistics is the study of human language. How did language develop? When do kids learn to speak? How do we learn multiple languages? How are the sounds and syntax different between languages? How does language evolve over time?
Political science deals with politics. Politics concerns itself about how stuff is distributed among people. Who gets what?
Psychology is the study of our brains. How do we think? What can go wrong with the brain? How can we fix our thoughts and behaviors?
Sociology is the study of our societies and how people relate and interact with each other. How do humans behave in society?
So, again, the natural sciences deal with the study of the universe and the earth. Social sciences deal with people.